Troubled Sleep

Sleep Disorders and Problems
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I am not competent to judge.

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A sharp decrease in night wakings at 7—8 weeks was observed in a group of infants diagnosed with insecure-avoidant attachment at 12 months [ 21 ]. Insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant behaviors might be considered antithetic accommodations of infants to less responsive mothers; the former associated with reduced demands on maternal attention, the latter with increased demands. A parallel pattern is seen in effects on maternal sleep.

Insecure-avoidant infants wake their mothers less frequently, and insecure-resistant infants more frequently, than securely attached infants. The insecure-avoidant pattern seems more aligned with the predicted effects of MEGs and the insecure-resistant pattern with the predicted effects of PEGs. Maternal attention becomes focused on the child and distracted from other activities.

Infants with PWS have weak cries and flat affect [ 25 ] whereas those with AS are noted for frequent smiles and laughter [ 26 ].

What should medicine do when it can’t save your life?

Troubled Sleep is a novel by Jean-Paul Sartre. The book was originally translated as Iron in the Soul. It is the third part in the trilogy Les chemins de la. Struggling with sleep problems, such as insomnia or daytime sleepiness? Learn the symptoms of common sleep disorders and how you can.

The positive affect of AS has been interpreted as an adaptation of PEGs for eliciting maternal investment [ 27 , 28 ]. Smiles of children with AS attract more adult attention than smiles of children with other intellectual disabilities [ 29 ] and decline in frequency with age [ 30 ]. Parent—child interactions are transformed once children can speak.

Troubled Sleep

Wilkins [ 5 ] suggests that sleep fragmentation is correlated with delayed language development. He cites a twin study in which sleep consolidation at 6 months was highly heritable and genetically correlated with language skills at 18 and 30 months. Specifically, infants with more fragmented sleep at 6 months had less language at 18 and 30 months [ 31 ].


Popular Articles. They play Thursday, which happens to be Ostapenko's 20th birthday and Bacsinszky's 28th. Develop a relaxing bedtime routine to prepare your mind and body for sleep. Vendrame said. Even in between episodes, individuals with bipolar disorder also experience lower quality sleep.

Infants with AS have unconsolidated sleep and never learn to speak [ 32 ]. The absence of language in the absence of expression of one or more MEGs is compatible with a hypothesis in which earlier development of language reduces infant demands on mothers. A burgeoning literature attempts to explicate the relation between genomic imprinting and acquisition of human language [ 33—35 ]. All five of these countries were included in a cross-cultural survey of parentally reported sleep problems in infants and toddlers [ 36 ].

Sleep problems were reported in all countries by some parents, albeit at substantially different frequencies. The western countries had distinctive sleeping arrangements but were not outliers on parental perceptions of problematic sleep.

Troubled Sleep

Percentage of parents reporting a sleep problem compared with the percentages of children sleeping in their own room or in the parental bed data from [ 36 ]. The populations are ordered from lowest to highest reported rates of sleep problems. The questionnaires were completed online in all countries except Vietnam where they were completed in face-to-face interviews. Japan has high rates of bed-sharing and low rates of problematic sleep [ 37 ]. Nevertheless, when space is available, some Japanese parents choose western sleeping arrangements and a market exists for Japanese-language books on how babies can be trained to sleep through the night M. Wada, personal communication. China, Taiwan and Hong Kong have both high rates of bed-sharing and high rates of problematic sleep compared with western countries.

Within this grouping, however, more children sleep in their own room but parents report fewer sleep problems in Hong Kong than in either China or Taiwan [ 36 ]. The fitness gain to mothers of an extra child and the benefits for infants of longer IBIs are substantial. These selective forces are unlikely to be orders of magnitude weaker than the advantages of lactase persistence, yet the selective forces associated with dairying have been sufficient to result in adaptive genetic differentiation among populations [ 38 ]. The possibility of gene—culture coevolution should not be discounted for behaviors associated with infant-care practices.

McKenna [ 1 ] and Hinde [ 2 ] both emphasize benefits from night-nursing other than prolongation of IBIs, including the nutritional value of milk for infants. I do not deny these benefits. The net effect of natural selection will be determined by the aggregate of all fitness-related effects. Genes in infants will be selected to favor more frequent night waking for both nutritional and contraceptive reasons. Mismatch between modern and ancestral environments can be a cause of disease, but I remain skeptical of a tendency to ascribe most modern woes to incongruence between our evolved nature and western cultural practices.

We did not evolve to be happy or healthy but to leave genetic descendants, and an undue emphasis on mismatch risks conflating health and fitness. Here I disagree. Our genetic adaptations often try to fool us into doing things that enhance fitness at costs to our happiness. When tempted by instincts, we should be wary of false advertising and genetic strategies of bait and switch. Fitness-enhancing behaviors are often elicited by the promise of happiness but fail to deliver as promised.

Our genes do not care about us and we should have no compunction about fooling them to deliver benefits without serving their ends. Contraception, to take one obvious example, allows those who choose childlessness to enjoy the pleasures of sexual activity without the fitness-enhancing risk of conception.

Night waking evolved in environments in which there were strong fitness costs from short IBIs and in which parents lacked artificial means of birth-spacing.

Troubled Sleep in the Arks of Doom

If night waking evolved because it prolonged IBIs, then it may no longer serve the ends for which it evolved or, at least, these ends have been greatly attenuated. Nevertheless, optimal infant development might continue to depend on frequent night feeds as part of our ingrained evolutionary heritage. It could also be argued that when night waking is not reinforced by feeding, and infants sleep through the night, then conflict within their genomes subsides. Infants would then gain the benefit of unfragmented sleep without the pleiotropic costs of intragenomic conflict. Plausible arguments could be presented for either hypothesis and a choice between them must await discriminating evidence.

Whether particular environmental mismatches are causes of ill-health remains an open question. Hunter-gatherer babies were born on walkabout, sleeping out on cold nights next to warm bodies, but obstetrical wards are maintained within a narrow range of lukewarm thermoneutrality in the belief that modern babies should be neither too hot nor too cold.

The tightly wrapped baby is then brought home to a centrally heated, air-conditioned house that is unlike any environment experienced by its infant ancestors. Does this mismatch matter? Are there developmental consequences of experiencing a narrow range of temperatures during infancy? The proportion of active sweat glands is modified by temperatures experienced during the first 2 years of life but then remains unchanged by subsequent migration to hotter or colder climates [ 39 ]. Could recruitment of brown adipose tissue be similarly compromised in the absence of early cold exposure with long-term consequences for energy expenditure?


These are interesting questions for research but it would be reckless to recommend saunas and cold-hardening for infants without clear evidence of benefit and absence of harm. Parents and offspring are distinct individuals. Some parts of this album are more subdued, recalling the synth bits of frequency lsd by masonna. I haven't read the stories this album is excerpted from, but the sound alone of the album is great. My only complaint is that the album is mostly in mono, which gives it a "Closed in" sound, which may have been fernows intent.

I prefer albums with strong stereo texture ie Amlux by Merzbow because they simply have more going on. Reply Notify me 6 Helpful.

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The rhetoric of digital messianism reached fever pitch during the Arab Spring. Western media, personal blogs, and Facebook postings reveled in triumphal enthusiasm. Not only could the revolution be televised, but live streamed, tweeted, and available in all manner of digital forms. In some quarters it is as if the social media itself creates social change. But the limited successes of these democratic struggles could only have been shaped by the necessarily invisible work of epistemic change at the grassroots level.

This slower, non-spectacular effort at social change is eclipsed by the more symbolic, digitally circulated images of revolution. Excited young men waving flags and women wearing hijabs with fingers raised in the sign for peace are ubiquitous in the blogosphere. Such symbolic gestures and public protests are indeed needed, but they also cover over the work of organizing, reform, and activism that makes social change until of course it fails. There are a growing number of visually oriented activist projects that work more carefully and critically with the circulation of images through social media platforms.

Take, for example, the photographic collective Activestills. But their online presence belongs to a broader on-the-ground-activist kind of approach that includes community organizing, intervention, and educational work. Digital forums can only be tools, not solutions. Walker proved controversial among some black artists and writers because her work did not solely explore white racism against the background of black victimhood and resistance.

Unlike sugar, maybe this riddle is insoluble. While An Audience offers a range of complex viewer responses, sadly, we only see a fevered dream of infantile domination in the digital vomitorium engendered by A Subtlety. The racial diversity evident in the assertion of the viewer as master over the work is also significant. After all, that dream was always nightmarish. Before working at a large art institution, like many people I thought of museums as slow-moving machines that are slightly out of place in history; anachronistic titans that are too big to fail.