Timing Verification of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits

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Functional simulation has been adequately covered in other books. Principles and techniques as opposed to specific tools are emphasized. Once designers understand the underlying principles of timing analysis, they can apply them with various timing tools.

Numerous design examples and HDL codes to illustrate the concepts discussed in the book are provided. This book is to be used for self-study by practicing engineers. Upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in electrical engineering can use it as a reference book in design courses in timing analysis and related topics. The material covered in this book requires some understanding of the Electronic Design Automation EDA tools and an initial course in logic design. The book is organized into two parts: Part I chapters 1 and 2 introduces the fundamental concepts involved in timing verification.

Including clock definitions, multicycle paths, false paths, and phase-locked loops. Chapter 1 gives an overview of timing verification and static timing analysis. It contrasts timing verification with functional verification. Typical goals of timing verification in digital systems are presented. This chapter ends with an example of interface timing analysis. Chapter 2 introduces the concepts of timing analysis with design examples. It specifically discusses such clocking methods as gated clocks, multifrequency clocks, and multiphase clocks. It introduces the concepts of multicycle paths, false paths, and timing constraints such as setup, hold, recovery, and pulse width.

Chapter 3 discusses the deep submicron ASIC design flow and application of timing analysis in the design process. It includes discussion of prelayout and postlayout timing verification.

Timing verification of applications-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in SearchWorks catalog

The chapter also discusses behavioral and structural RTL coding for timing, synthesis and timing constraint, and the ASIC sign-off checklist. We make the concepts concrete with numerous examples.

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Chapter 4 discusses timing concepts in programmable logic-based designs. It covers design flow, timing parameters, timing analysis, and HDL synthesis and software development systems. We present the most commonly used programmable logic devices Actel, Altera, and Xilinx and associated timing issues.

Appendix D covers some concepts of transistor-level timing verification. In today's high-speed designs, timing analysis is critical to success. This is the first book to focus exclusively on these crucial timing issues, with special emphasis on timing verification of ASICs. This method makes the materials applicable to a variety of logic design approaches, especially in the field of deep submicron digital design. Topics include:. Numerous design examples and Verilog codes offer practical illustrations of all the concepts.

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Read more Read less. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Read more. Topics include: Clock definitions, multicycle paths, false paths, and phase-locked loops Behavioral and structural RTL coding for timing Timing analysis of FPGAs Pre and Post layout timing analysis Synthesis and Timing constraints EDA timing tools Numerous design examples and Verilog codes offer practical illustrations of all the concepts.

Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 5 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Format: Paperback. This book is very good for beginners starting working with FPGAs. In particular, ECAD systems are used to generate data descriptive of the entire circuit layout as well as the layout of individual circuit cells. Since each cell often contains a large number of circuit elements and interconnections among the elements and their respective timing, ECAD systems have become an indispensable tool in the design of integrated circuits.

In the process of creating a large integrated circuit chip design, it is quite useful and customary to partition the logic into manageable pieces and to design hierarchically.

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This modularity maximizes reuse and simplifies the design. Some of the design pieces or blocks might be custom designed, while others could simply be synthesized ASIC blocks. If the design is to be processed by a timing analysis tool, such as a static timing analyzer, there must at least be timing information for each of the lowest level building blocks of the design. Timing information about these blocks is presented to the timing analysis tool in the form of timing rules.

There currently exist static timing analysis tools, which are commonly made available by vendors of ECAD stations and software, for timing analysis. Timing analysis is performed by software which analyzes the timing relationships between logic state changes within a circuit and determines if certain timing criteria such as minimum setup and hold times have been violated.

A static timing analyzer does not attempt to model the circuit as it would operate but rather attempts to analyze a circuit's temporal behavior. The netlist is a compilation of information descriptive of the primitives i. Netlist can also be a cell description a group of circuit elements and their interconnection. The timing rules specify the timing for these circuits. Development and verification tools used in ASIC design usually implement a hardware description language. These netlist comprises a list of basic cells used in the design of the system, specifying interconnection among the cells.

Connections between or among cells are known as nets. A circuit path through a system comprises a number of cells and the interconnecting nets for the circuit path. In most situations, this modeling provides adequate results, and the circuit can be timed reasonably well. In particular, using these conventional timing analytical frameworks for timing results, the load capacitance of each input pin on a particular circuit must be fixed.

However, when a circuit has an open channel input, the load capacitance can have many different values. In some pathological situations, the load capacitance measured at the input to a circuit is not a function of that circuit. Instead, it is a function of that circuit and its electrical neighbors and interconnect connecting the circuit to its neighbors, commonly referred to as a static channel connected component CCC. A TIMING RULE is a set of data and algorithms which specify the temporal behavior of a particular type of gate under different conditions, such as temperature, voltage, capacitive loading of signal outputs, and rate-of-change slew of signal input voltages.

Conventional timing graphs for this method are shown in FIGS. Referring now to FIG. Item [] 10 of the block diagram is the net list. An example of a net list is shown in FIG. Item illustrates timing rules that the net list 10 must comply with. Exemplary timing rules are shown in FIGS. Additional variables such as parasitic capacitance 70 and assertions 60 are also shown in FIG. Item 60 of this figure represent the external temporal requirements imposed on the netlist under analysis.

In an item , these conventional systems build a timing graph with the information from the netlists 10 and the timing rules An example of a timing graph is shown in FIG. In item 90 , the timing graph is annotated with the delays, arrival times and required arrival times using the information from the assertions 6 , the parasitics 70 , the timing graph and the timing rules In addition, the conventional process generates timing reports for the user using the timing graph and the netlist [] A timing report is a text or graphical based summary of the temporal behavior of the netlist.

This report may include the delay of the longest path through the netlist, an annotated list of the cells and their individual delays in the longest path, and the results of timing tests within the netlist and timing tests at the primary inputs and outputs of the netlist. The intent of the timing report is to concisely represent the critical timing s within the netlist, and alert the circuit designer to potential situations within the netlist that would prevent the proper operation of the netlist.

As mentioned above FIG. Box which has a name B and is a latch. The boxes are connected by a net named C.

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The method in claim 1 , further comprising producing a timing graph from said combining process. Please be aware that all papers are copyrighted by the organization responsible for the corresponding conference or journal. Then FPGAs and simulation software is most suitable for you. If the designer wants to deal more with Hardware, then Schematic entry is the better choice. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Book Description Prentice Hall,

The timing graph shown in FIG. Once again the net connecting the boxes , is also shown in FIG. The data [] and clock inputs into box and the output from box are also illustrated in FIG. Equation 2 in FIG. The data needed to calculate the delay is , and the results of the delay calculation are carried to the next box by The delay of the inverter itself is Similarly, FIG. Once again the data , clock and output are illustrated. As with FIG. The details of these delay calculations are not germane to this invention, and hence are represented in prototypical fashion.

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However, present TLT methods are difficult to implement for an entire transistor design in view of its capacity constraints when compared to standard ASIC timing methods. It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide an improved method for enhancing accuracy of static timing analysis of an application specific integrated circuit ASIC.

Conventional systems performed circuit timing analysis using a standard net-based ASIC circuit timing analysis, which is a relatively quick analysis that calculates the circuit's timing by using the timing rules of nets and the netlist, showing the connections between the nets.

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Also, a more intensive and slower TLT analysis is available. The TLT analysis looks at the actual design of the transistors themselves and the actual wiring connections between the individual transistors and uses this design to perform a timing analysis. The TLT analysis is more complicated and slower than the net-based ASIC circuit timing analysis because the TLT makes individual calculations regarding the design of individual transistors. In other words, the net-based analysis takes advantage of the hierarchical structure of libraries that contain know previously calculated individual net performance data, while the TLT analysis performs such calculations individually for each analysis.

This makes the TLT analysis much slower than the net-based analysis and TLT analysis are not commonly used when net-based analysis are available. However, a TLT analysis will properly model such open channel input circuits. Therefore, the invention takes advantage of the efficiencies associated with net-based ASIC timing analysis for most circuits. However, upon encountering an open channel input circuit, the invention switches modes and performs the more intensive TLT analysis to provide proper analysis for such circuits.

The invention provides a method and system for designing static timing analysis for application specific-type integrated circuits ASIC. Thus, it is a further object to provide in an appropriately programmed computer, a static timing analysis method for generating a timing graph of an integrated circuit comprising inputting netlist, timing rules, open channel circuits, and transistor level design data into a timing analysis application; using said netlist to construct an initial timing graph for said integrated circuit; detecting at least one open channel circuit, while constructing said timing graph, and invoking transistor level timing TLT analysis for said open channel circuit s and static channel connected component CCC ; applying normal timing rules for circuits other than said open channel circuit s and said CCC, and using data from said TLT analysis and said normal timing rules to perform static timing analysis on said integrated circuit.

The present invention also includes a computer implemented method implementing the method steps set forth above. The present invention also provides the advantage of a systematic generation of timing graphs used in designing an integrated circuit. The foregoing and other objects, aspects and advantages will be better understood from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the drawings, in which: [].

Referring now to the FIG. The steps of this process are illustrated in the block diagram of FIG. Similar items in FIG.

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Timing Verification of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) [Farzad Nekoogar] on cydyqywyty.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviewers tell . Farzad Nekoogar. Timing Verification of Application-Specific Integrated. Circuits ( ASICs). Category: VLSI & ULSI. Publisher: Prentice Hall; 1 edition (June.

The netlist file [] 10 defines the ASIC circuit to be timed. It is constructed from system elements connected by input and output nodes to form a network.

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An element can be a single transistor, resistor, capacitor, gate, register, functional model, stimulus function, global timing error function or output probing function. The netlist data file [] 1 0 include element and attribute identifiers. Element identifiers specify the type of function being defined i. The netlist file may also include capacitance specifications applied to particular nodes, and subcircuit specifications i. A model file contains information for each subcircuit, including the number of input pins, output pins, and biput pins; the pin ordering for the subcircuit interface; the number of states; and whether the subcircuit should be expanded or a model substituted from a model library.

Timing rules data files [] provide timing rules for custom design blocks of the ASIC and are usually generated via an automatic program, and by hand, or some combination of the two. Transistor level timing subroutines and for circuits can use methods taught in U. This patent discloses a method for accurately simulating the timing and power behavior of digital MOS circuits, which includes piece-wise linear modeling of transistors, dynamic and static construction of channel connected components CCC , event driven simulation and current measuring capabilities for power supplies, grounds, and individual resistors and transistors.

The method accepts the netlist [] 10 defining the ASIC circuit to be simulated and building an initial timing graph, and a transistor model file 40 containing transistor characteristics including voltage-current array s and piece-wise linear transistor approximations created therefrom. Larger CCCs must be constructed dynamically during simulation. Simulation is event driven. When a node is identified as having the next pending event, a transistor connected thereto is identified, and either a static or dynamic CCC is constructed 50 based upon the transistor.

Once the CCC is established, its response to the pending event is evaluated through linear approximation, wherein each transistor contained in the affected channel connected component is replaced with a current source, resistor and transconductor retrieved from the transistor models file Where a new event or events are identified at the output node s of a CCC during the course of evaluation, these events are scheduled for future determination.

CCC evaluation, more specifically, is carried out by rigorously solving circuit equations and calculating node voltages and element currents which represent a detailed, simulated circuit response. Element currents may be accumulated for obtaining full chip currents. Assertions data file [] 60 provide data that include arrival time at primary inputs, require time at primary outputs, clock phase, frequency and duty cycle information, and other timing related items.

Timing verification of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs)

Parasitic capacitance data file [] 70 includes data as to calibrated gate and diffusion capacitances of the transistors. These capacitances are constant values and are added to discrete capacitors i. This summation is then stored in a data structure created specifically for the node at issue for subsequent processing. More specifically, the FIG. In a similar manner, FIG. The latch itself is shown as item and the output in shown as item These elements are combined to create the channel connected components shown in FIG.

The method using the timing rule for the latch as similarly shown in FIG. Similarly, the netlist and the timing rule for the inverter shown in FIG. Finally, a timing graph for this example is shown in FIG. The input to the inverter is shown as well as the clock input and the overall output 41 8.